Web 2.0

Describes a new stage of the World Wide Web where end-users become collaborators and co-creators rather than consumers of web content. Typical Web 2.0 sites include blogs, social networking sites, virtual communities, wikis, and mashups.

Virtual Appliance

A virtual appliance is a software appliance that is installed on a virtual machine. Virtual appliances are hosted through remote infrastructure and can be accessed remotely without any locally-installed hardware. Virtual appliances play a significant role in cloud computing’s software as a service (SaaS) model where remote software access is delivered through a Web browser.

Two-factor authentication

This describes the use of two authentication techniques in combination, for example a password and a smart card. It generally comprises something the user possesses, and something the user knows.


A security token is a hardware component for the identification and authentication of users. The user must be in possession of the token in order to be granted access rights.


Single sign-on (SSO) is a mechanism that allows a user who has been authenticated via a particular device to access all computers and services for which he is locally authorized – without having to log on separately on each occasion.


Smart cards are used to authenticate to a variety of systems, for example to access buildings, to pay in the cafeteria, or to use follow-me printing services. They are available with different types of identification technology, including RFID chips, contact chips, magnetic stripes, or biometric data, and can be printed with any kind of individual design.


Single Sign-On functionality to promote the use of digital services and textbooks in Swedish schools.


Security assertion markup language (SAML) is an XML framework for the exchange of authentication and authorization data. It provides functions that describe and transmit security-related information.


Federation for the Swedish health care.


Software as a service (SaaS) is a form of cloud computing. It entails the delivery of an application over an IP network. The software is not purchased and then locally installed, but accessed and used remotely, and on demand.


Radio-Frequency Identification is a tagging or identification technology. It uses radio-frequency electromagnetic fields to transfer data non-contact for the purposes of automatically identifying and tracking tags attached to objects. Tags may be battery-powered or derive their power from the RF waves coming from the reader. Unlike a barcode, the tag does not necessarily need to be within line of sight of the reader, and may be embedded in any type of object, typically smart cards or transponders.

Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)

Public key infrastructure (PKI) is a commonly used technology for safeguarding computer and network access, and for protecting communications. PKI credentials consist of a pair of cryptographic keys and an electronic certificate that are employed to identify and authenticate the user.

Proximity Card

Proximity cards are smart cards which can be read without inserting them into a reader device. They are using radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology to communicate with the reader device over a distance of a few meters. Proximity cards can hold more data than magnetic stripe cards.

Physical Identity Management (PIM)

Centralized identity and access management for multiple physical access control systems.

Physical Access Management (PAM)

IP-based card reader products.


OpenID is a security protocol for web services that supports single sign-on (SSO) for authentication and identity management.

Nexus Online Services (NOS)

Online portal for resellers and system integrators to support their end users in ordering, producing and distributing identity cards and soft tokens.

Managed services

Managed services are IT services that are delivered and maintained by external providers. This form of outsourcing allows routine operational and administrative duties to be performed efficiently and cost-effectively.


LDAP (lightweight directory access protocol) is a protocol that allows information in directories, for example on users, to be accessed and shared over the Internet by applications such as email programs.

Internet of Things (IoT)

The digital network is soon going to connect physical objects (“things”), persons, machines, devices and processes. It is expected that 50 Billion devices will be connected to the Internet by 2020. Contrary to the Internet as we know it, where only persons have digital identities, the Internet of Things equips physical objects with digital identities. The objects are embedded with software, electronics and sensors that allow them to communicate with other objects or persons in the digital or physical world. IoT will transform all industries – it is expected that the new connectivity will set off automation in almost all fields of business. Establishing secure infrastructures and trustworthy identities is vital for the successful deployment of this new kind of network.

Information Security Policy

A set of policies issued by an organization to ensure that all IT users within the organization’s domain or its networks comply with rules and guidelines related to the security of the information stored digitally within the organization’s boundaries of authority. A security policy comprises a set of rules defining who is authorized to access what and under which conditions, and the criteria under which such authorization is given or cancelled.

Industry 4.0

Refers to the fourth industrial revolution, following the first (mechanization of production through water and steam power), second (use of electricity for mass production), and third (use of electronics and IT for automation). Experts believe that the fourth revolutionary leap will entail full computerization of traditional industries. A key element of Industry 4.0 is the Smart Factory marked by adaptability, resource efficiency and ergonomics as well as intelligent processes and communication. Technological basis are cyber-physical systems and the Internet of Things.

Identity Theft

The crime of obtaining someone else’s personally identifying information, such as their name, credit card number, social security number, or similar, in order to assume that person’s identity. Usually committed in order to gain access to resources or obtain credit and other benefits in that person’s name.

Identity federation

Identity federation involves creating a trusted identity that is recognized across an organization or a group of organizations. The aim is to streamline processes within and beyond enterprise boundaries, as users do not need separate credentials for individual domains or systems.